EXERCISE FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF BONE HEALTH AND PREVENTION OF OSTEOPOROSIS: Osteoporosis, according to the World Health Organization. Its a disease characterized by low bone mineral density and by a deterioration of the architecture of bone tissue. Which increases the fragility of bones and the risk of fracture.
“Although, indeed, the prevalence of osteoporosis is not very high, the consequences of an osteoporotic fracture are dire since it dramatically increases the risk of disability and mortality. “As Alba Gómez explained in her speech last Tuesday, May 23, in the program Escúchate, on Aragón Radio, 1 in 3 men and 1 in 5 women die in the year after the fracture.
Although osteoporosis is a “silent disease” that does not have symptoms such as pain, we can know the risk factors that predispose a person to develop this pathology. Family history of osteoporosis, female gender, age over 70 years, a diet low in calcium and vitamin D, corticosteroid treatments, prolonged immobilization, or sedentary lifestyle are factors that increase the risk of suffering from this disease.It’s important for elderly people at higher risk for falls to look into both life and home insurance for seniors to maintain their physical and financial health
The practice of physical exercise is essential for the prevention of osteoporosis. “Physical exercise is today the primary non-pharmacological treatment to improve bone health and prevent osteoporosis. ” Children who during their childhood and youth have practiced regular exercise, have gained more mineral density and have a more resistant bone structure, so they end up having less risk of both osteoporosis and fracture when they are older.
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Type of Exercise
Regarding the type of exercise, Gómez explained that the most indicated for prevention would be “the one that has an impact or mechanical load on the bone. ” It is in this type of exercise will activate the cells responsible for the formation of bone mass. Activities such as running, soccer, or basketball would be positive.
In addition, exercise can also be very positive in older people with osteoporosis. In this population group, strength training can help improve bone mineral density or slow down the bone loss that occurs with aging. On the other hand, balance training helps reduce the risk of falling. The leading cause of bone fractures, so this exercise is also very beneficial in people with osteoporosis.
Finally, these people with osteoporosis should not do exercises involving sudden movements or jumps since having weakened bones could increase fracture risk.
For proper planning and to obtain benefits one health through exercise, it is recommended to consult Physical Educators. They, the graduates and graduates in Physical Activity and Sports Sciences. Will be able to advise you on the most appropriate type of exercise.
Ten Tips for Osteoporosis Patients
Decalogue for patients with osteoporosis in the I Symposium on Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (SER) framework.
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease in which there is a decrease in bone mass density. There are no symptoms until bone loss is significant enough for fractures to develop.
Within the framework of the 1st Symposium on Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (SER), held this weekend in A Coruña, we have prepared a decalogue that will be useful for those affected with this pathology.
Adequate Intake of Calcium Products.
The primary source of calcium in the diet is dairy products. Although this is well known. People often wonder if low-fat dairy products have less calcium or if all cheeses have the same content. It is essential to know that skim dairy products provide. The same amount of calcium and that the cheeses with the highest calcium content cured. Generally speaking, an approximate intake of one gram of calcium per day needed for an adult to have good bone health. We can achieve this, for example, with a liter of milk. But there are other sources of calcium that can contribute to meeting daily needs, such as nuts (almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts), legumes (white beans, chickpeas), fish (canned sardines with bones), vegetables (watercress, broccoli),
Exposure to Sunlight.
The general recommendation is daily exposure to the sun of the face, hands, and arms for 10-15 minutes. However, skin production of vitamin D depends on the season of the year, geographic latitude, time of day, skin color, age, and the use of sunscreen. Thus, for example, training carried out in Valencia highlighted that in spring and summer. 10 to 20 minutes around noon are enough (7 minutes in July and 30 minutes in October) to obtain the recommended daily dose of vitamin D from the exposed body surface according to the season of the year. However, in winter, from November to February, it would take almost two hours. Thus, the estimated average dose of skin synthesis of vitamin D is only a quarter of that recommended in winter.
It is essential to avoid exposing yourself to excessive sunlight due to associated skin problems, such as skin cancer and skin aging.
Intake of Foods That Provide Vitamin D
The primary source of vitamin D is skin synthesis from exposure to sunlight. However, the diet can also meet daily needs. From foods enriched with vitamin D (dairy products, cereals, and margarine) and fatty fish. Thus, it is advisable to include salmon, sardines, tuna, and mackerel in the diet.
Other foods can contribute to the dietary intake of vitamin D. However, to a lesser extent and with an almost testimonial contribution to the daily needs of vitamin D. These include egg yolk, certain mushrooms, especially those exposed to ultraviolet light such as brown mushrooms or crimini mushrooms, as well as animal liver such as beef or lamb.
Ideal Nutrition For Bone Health
Adequate protein intake is required for bone health and maintaining muscle mass, which is essential in preventing falls. Additionally, a healthy diet is recommended with fruits and vegetables that sources of vitamin K (green leafy vegetables, broccoli, and fruits such as kiwi) and magnesium (green leafy vegetables, pumpkin, and flax seeds, almonds). The diet should also provide zinc and especially vitamin B.
Physical Exercise Regularly
It is advisable to perform physical impact exercises on the ground to maintain good muscle and bone health. Thus, the most recommended practice is walking, running, or low-impact aerobic exercise (if the patient’s health allows it). Jumping is not recommended in patients who have suffered vertebral fractures and should replace by walking to reduce the disproportionate impact on the spine. Cycling or swimming, which do not involve contact with the ground, highly recommended for general health but have little effect on maintaining bone mass.
Physical exercise programs generally include 20 to 30 minutes practiced regularly, 2-3 days a week. Always adapted to the patient’s characteristics. The most recommended exercises are isometric, stretching, and spinal extension exercises to strengthen the upper back. High-impact practices and those that involve extreme flexion and torsion of the trunk should be avoided. Thus, you must be careful in activities that may require these postures, such as golf, tennis, bowling, and some yoga positions.
Promote Proper Postures and Balance
It is advisable to improve the balance with programs that include 3 hours a week of physical exercise aimed at this purpose. It has also been suggested that regular Tai Chi practice can improve balance and body schema perception. Thus reduce stumbling, falling, and losing balance in elderly individuals.
Adequacy of The Environment and Other Tips to Avoid Falls
It is recommended to remove all those objects that can facilitate falls from the patient’s background with osteoporosis, such as carpets and electrical and telephone cables. In addition, good lighting in the home is recommended. Ensuring access to light in the bedroom and hallway and the use of non-slip mats in the bathtub or shower. Other important aspects are to wear proper footwear avoiding high heels, flexible slippers, and shoes with slippery soles. Should not forget reasonable vision control.
Avoid Drugs That Can Increase The Risk of Falls
It recommended to avoid hypnotic sedative drugs. Since advanced age, poor sleep, and their use usually associated and increase the risk of falls and fractures through cognitive and psychomotor impairment mechanisms. All this causes a decrease in coordination, with alterations in balance and gait. You must also be careful with taking psychotropic drugs, antipsychotics, and antidepressants.
We should appropriately adjust treatment with antihypertensive drugs since they have been related to the development of hypotension and syncope. Its role in the risk of falls is controversial. Although there may be an increased risk of falls initially and with treatment intensification.
Avoid Tobacco and Excess Alcohol
It is recommended to avoid tobacco use. The exact role that tobacco plays in osteoporosis is unclear. But a direct relationship between tobacco use and decreased bone density has been described.
It is also recommended not to drink alcohol in excess. Since its chronic and abusive consumption is associated with a double harmful effect. An increased risk of falls and reduced bone mineral density.
See a Doctor If You Have Had a Fracture After a Trivial Fall
It is recommended to consult with doctor if you have suffered fracture not induced by a hit-and-run, sports, or automobile accident. It is common to think that “you have fractured yourself because you have fallen”. Your doctor will assess whether it could be an osteoporotic fracture. Your diagnosis and treatment will help prevent the development of new fractures.
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